Primary & secondary education of a country


Education is the greatest force that can be used to bring about change. It is also the greatest investment that a nation can make for   the quick development of its economic, political, sociological and human resources .
Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, research, or simply through autodidacticism.[1] Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts.
Quotation: ISLAM GIVES GREAT IMPORTANCE TO EDUCATION.I Would like to add a very important quotation by our great PROPHET HAZRAT MUHAMMAD (S.A.W).
 Acquisition of knowledge is a religious obligation of each Muslim man and woman
There are two basic and important types of education which are necessary for the uplift of a countru these two types are primary education and secondary education.
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This is education given normally to children aged between six and eleven years and above. Since the rest of the educational system is built upon it, the primary level is the key to the success or failure of the whole system.
The state and local governments have the constitutional responsibility for primary education but private sector, represented by individuals, communities, religious groups, and voluntary agencies are permitted to own and run primary schools. Primary education is the FOUNDATION of the character building of  th children and these children are the future of a country
Elementary school was formerly the name given to publicly funded schools in Great Britain[citation needed] which provided a basic standard of education for working class children aged from five to 14, the school leaving age at the time. They were also known as industrial schools.
Elementary schools were set up to enable working class children to receive manual training and elementary instruction. They provided a restricted curriculum with the emphasis on reading, writing and arithmetic (the three Rs In Saudi Arabia, elementary school includes grade 1 through 6

Secondary education has increasingly become a central policy concern of developing countries, particularly among those that have made rapid progress in universalizing primary education and among those in which the demographic trend has shifted in favor of adolescents. The majority of countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, East Asia, and the Middle East, as well as some African countries, are grappling with the questions of how to provide skills and knowledge that enable adolescents to move to tertiary education and how to ensure a smooth transition to work for students whose education will end with secondary schooling.
Secondary education also addresses problems unique in human development. Without requisite education to guide their development, not only would young people be ill prepared for tertiary education or for the workplace, but they would also be susceptible to juvenile delinquency and teen pregnancy, thereby exacting a high social cost. Hence the challenge for secondary education is enormous. It represents an unfinished agenda that all countries will face as they develop.

Secondary Education in Europe and the United States

In Europe, higher education, including secondary education, began with training in religion and philosophy. Its purpose was to prepare leaders–especially religious leaders–and its curriculum reflected this purpose. As time passed, general topics for more applied professions were added as part of secondary and higher education curricula, and the curriculum was broadened accordingly. As these general topics were gradually added to the curriculum, they remained philosophical or theoretical in orientation. They were not studied as systems of empirical data, and proofs and validation of knowledge were theoretical rather than experimental.

Education and literacy rate in pak: Only 80% of Pakistani children finish primary school education.[12] The standard national system of education is mainly inspired from the British system.

Qualitative Dimension
In Pakistan, the quality of education has a declining trend. Shortage of teachers and poorly equipped laboratories has resulted in the out-dated curriculum that has little relevance to present day needs.[14]
Quantitative Dimension
Causative factors include defective curricula, dual medium of instruction, poor quality of teachers, cheating in the examinations and overcrowded classrooms. However, efforts are on the way of moulding the curriculum to meet its national requirements.[14


Organization and subject content. A single nationally set curriculum consistently delivered is a successful educational procedure at the primary level. Where flexibility and student choice are present there is widespread consensus that this should begin after primary school, although whether or not flexibility should begin in lower secondary, where it exists, is still debated. The decision as to whether a curriculum should prepare specialist or generalist knowledge and skills is often decided on the basis of whether a particular level is seen as preparatory or terminal. The trend appears to be one in which the mandated curriculum of the lower secondary grades, or their equivalent by whatever name, is a linear extrapolation of primary school.

Primary schools are almost always general-purpose institutions with considerable social and political consensus surrounding their mission, which is, simply put, to prepare all children for competent adulthood by giving them basic literacy and numeracy skills and, in many countries, an explicit set of moral values. The situation at the secondary level is vastly more complex. Nevertheless, a growing number of countries, often for political and economic reasons rather than pedagogical, put together in a single, all-purpose school, students from different backgrounds, with different needs, abilities, and interests

Conclusion:to conclude I would like to say tthat sound primary and secondary educations are necessary for the uplift of a country.and I recommend that every nation should make strong polices to increase their literacy rate because a countey’s power can be judged by its literarcy rate also.because we know education makes a country strong socially religiously  and economically.

Pollution Problems in Pakistan

Pollution is a major environmental problem in the most developing as well as developed countries. Most of these countries such as U.S have been quite successful in solving these problems by passing out certain environmental laws and producing alternatives to such sources which cause a lot of pollution such as coal and oil power stations. There are also laws which make sure that the waste from the industries is being disposed off correctly and is not in any way harmful to the environment. However in Pakistan the pollution problems have been rising since it got its independence. Very few people have concern about the negative effects of pollution on themselves as well as their environment. Hence this problem is increasing day by day which may lead in the destruction of our natural environment as well as our own. In Pakistan there are three major sources of pollution
1. Air Pollution: in Pakistan the most common source of air pollution is mainly vehicles whose exhaust fumes pollute the air. Unlike other developed countries where there are catalyc converters and efficient vehicles which may cause less pollution, the situation in Pakistan is totally opposite. As most of the people are poor they don’t have enough money to repair or spend money on their vehicles so that they can become environment friendly. Even the car manufacturers don’t make their cars much environment friendly and the people are forced to buy these cars. More fuel is burned as most roads of Pakistan are broken and there are a lot of traffic jams which increases the journey time. Many industries in big cities such as Karachi and Lahore give out harmful pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. The government and the authorities take little concern about these industries. As a result of this the sky of Lahore and Karachi are covered with thick smog .This may lead to many respiratory diseases and may also be harmful to the animals living in such places. Even in Islamabad, the cleanest city in Pakistan I could see thick smog over the city from the Margalla hills and while traveling to Murree there was so much of exhaust fumes from vehicles that we had to keep our car windows closed.
2. Water Pollution: this is a major problem in Pakistan. There are many sources of water pollution in Pakistan. Most of them are found in Karachi as it is an area of industries. Although it is a government policy to filter the industrial water and then release it into the sea many industries here are dumping contaminated water in seas thereby increasing the threat of
extinction of marine life as well as polluting the water. Almost the whole of city’s sewerage is dumped into rivers and the sea. As a result of this Karachi is facing many problems in the access of clean water and most parts of the city are still without water. Even in my home we get 2 small tankers weekly as there is no water in the supply. The oil spill incident has increased the amount of pollution in the sea as well as has caused most of the beaches to be polluted. It is said that the oil spill disaster from Tasman Spirit has killed hundreds and thousands of fishes as well as destroyed much of the marine life. It has also caused eye infections and respiratory problems to those living near the sea. Further leakages in pipelines have polluted the clean water which we have so little of.
3. Land Pollution: As Pakistan is not a rich country, it doesn’t have enough money to spend on waste disposal systems. As a result most of the home waste and other kinds of wastage is usually thrown away on empty plots next to the houses and is then burned which may be harmful to the people living in the area. Only less than 5% of the waste is recycled and most of it is disposed directly on the ground. There are only a few garbage cans along the roads so people living far away have to dispose off their waste somewhere else. This attracts flies which then spread diseases. Apart from this, the rubbish thrown would disintegrate in a 1000 years from now. Hence an increase in land pollution may in turn slowly destroy our natural environment which is already at risk.
SOLUTIONS TO THE POLLUTION PROBLEMS


Here are a few solutions to the pollution problems faced by Pakistan:
Air Pollution:
Instead of using private cars we must use public transport more often and walk for short distances.
There should be a greenbelt constructed in big cities such as Karachi. The trees in the green belt would reduce the amount of fumes in the air and give out clean oxygen.
We should use unleaded petrol in our vehicles. It is already available at most petrol stations. Unleaded petrol is more efficient for the car and is less harmful to the environment.
Most of the leading car manufacturers should install catalyc converters in their
2. Water pollution:
a)The factory waste should be first filtered and then disposed properly into sea or river. If this is not done, then the government should take legal action against them.
b)Instead of using clean water, we can use the filtered industrial water for flushing toilets, watering the plants and washing the cars.
c)The government should ask the local citizens for proper beach cleaning once in a year. Besides it should also fine those people who throw their waste into the sea or river.
d)There must be a regular cleaning of all the canals and channels by the government workers.
e) The government should pass strict environmental laws concerning oil spill
f)We must all cooperate with one another to save our marine life as much as possible.
3.Land Pollution:
a)Instead of throwing all our rubbish away we can give some of it for recycling such as old newspapers etc. we must also reuse polythene bags for other purposes such as for carrying things.
b) There must be a landfill area where all the rubbish can be disposed off. There must also be incinerators where the remaining garbage can be burned.
c)The government should place garbage cans and bins in many places so that people can throw their rubbish there.
d)We can play a part by throwing plastic wrappers and other kinds of waste into the garbage cans and not on the roads.
e) We can also help by keeping our environment around us clean as well as educating others to do so.
f) All the shop keepers must use paper bags instead of polythene ones. These are more environments friendly and can be recycled.
By Qasim Mahmood

essay on Mass Advertising

Advertising is a form of mass communication. It involves a process of transmission of information by the manufacturer or a seller of a product or service to modify or stimulate the behaviour of the buyer to buy a particular product.
Thus it has a persuasive element. Kumar (1997) points out that Advertisement is not mass medium in the way that the press, the cinema, radio, TV and the folk media are. They are not so much mediating technologies for reaching the masses as much as users of the mass media to get across their messages to large members of customers.
It has been the engine of growth of mass media. Much of financial support for the development of technological media has come from industry and business which need large scale advertising.
Thus it became so much a part of mass media that the distinction between the media as public fore and as tools of publicity for business and other Social institutions has become gradually blurred. The history of mass communication has been largely shaped by the needs of advertising.
Advertising can be in any form of presentation such as sign, symbol or illustration in print media, a commercial on radio or television, poster etc. Thus advertising is the communication link between the seller and the buyer. It has made mass selling possible.
The term advertising is derived from the Latin word advertence. It means to turn the mind to Advertising diverts the attention of the buyers to product or service.
Advertising plays an important role in shaping the kind of mass media we have in this country. Advertising pays the mass media to disseminate its messages and without advertising, our newspapers, magazines and radio and television programming would be far different.
We would not have the number or variety of media and programming, and the cost to the consumer would be much higher.
One of the basic ingredients of today’s popular culture is consumption and it is the advertising industry that makes mass consumption possible. Advertising is an important element of our culture because it reflects and attempts to change our life styles.
New cultural trends and fashions are first transmitted to the mass culture through advertisements.

Advantages & disadvanteges of Mobile Phone

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“NECESSARY IS THE MOTHER OF INVENTION”
Mobile phone is a very wonderful invention of modern time. It is used by each and every person either for business or for personal use. It has become just like a part of our body. It has many advantages. But it is sorry to say that with the increase in technology of mobile phone its disadvantages are also increaseing day by day. Today mobile phones are nothing but a time bomb.  Because many terrorist are using it as detonator.  Which is very harmful for our new generation.  Many people are killed in an explosion.
It has another disadvantage also because many children use it as a source of game and waste their time. Continuous use of mobile cause brain Cancer and science has proved this fact.
Teenagers are  mugged for their mobile phone and of they severely injured after being attached in street thefts.
 But other than disadvantage it has also advantages. Many murderers are trapped by their calls.their Phone records show that  where the criminal is present at that  time.  Another very important advantage of mobile phone is that  we can keep in touch with our friends and family.in advance mobile phones we can have news which is also vey important to keep us up to date.
In short mobile phone has both advantages and disadvantages. It is up to us how to use it.
                                                                                                                             
 Created by Javeria Nawaz

CSS exam subjects Share

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Optional courses can be selected from any group, ranging from A to I given below. Every optional course holds either 100 or 200 marks and the courses opted for from each group must not exceed a total of 200. The groups are diverse in their courses so that students from all educational backgrounds can apply and prepare for the examination. Candidates have to select total 600 marks subjects of optional subjects. For instance, group A includes humanities courses; group B includes courses pertaining to social sciences, group C for mathematics and statistics and Group H for languages. Below the groups information is given.

Compulsory Subjects
1.
Essay
100
2.
English
100
3.
Islamiat
100
General Knowledge
4.
Everyday Science
100
5.
Current Affairs
100
6.
Pakistan Affairs
100
  Total Marks:
600
     

Optional Subjects:
(subjects carrying a total of 600 marks to be selected)

Group A
Subjects carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted.
Note: Business Administration cannot be opted in combination with Public Administration
1.
Accounting & Auditing
200
2.
Economics
200
3.
Business Administration
100
4.
Public Administration
100

Group B
Subject/s carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted.
1.
Political Science
200
2.
Agriculture
100
3.
Forestry
100
4.
Sociology
100
5.
Journalism
100

Group C
Subjects carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted.
1.
Pure Mathematics
200
2.
Applied Mathematics
200
3.
Computer Science
100
4.
Statistics
100

Group D ( Science Subjects )
Subjects carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted.
1.
Physics
200
2.
Geology
200
3.
Geography
200
4.
Chemistry
200
5.
Botany
200
6.
Zoology
200

Group E ( History Subjects )
Subjects carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted.
1.
Islamic History & Culture
200
2.
Indo Pak History
200
3.
British History
200
4.
European History
200
5.
History of the USA
100

Group F
Subjects carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted.
Note: International Law CANNOT BE opted in combination with International Relations.
1.
Law
200
2.
Constitutional Law
100
3.
Mercantile Law
100
4.
Muslim Law & Jurisprudence
100
5.
International Law
100
6.
International Relations
100

Group G
Subjects carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted.
1.
Philosophy
200
2.
Psychology including Exp. Psychology
200

Group H ( Regional Languages )
Subjects carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted.
Regional Languages: Not more than one of the 4 subjects can be opted.
1.
Sindhi
100
2.
Pushto
100
3.
Punjabi
100
4.
Balochi
100

Group I ( National and Foreign Languages )
Subjects carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted. National/Foreign/Classical Languages: Not more than one of 4 subjects can be opted. Note: Urdu can not be combined with Regional Languages.
1.
English Literature
200
2.
Urdu
200
3.
Persian
200
4.
Arabic
200

PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS WRITING

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              Effective communication is need of every organization. Business writing should follow some principle. These principles bring with ‘C’. They are seven in number. So they are called seven C’s. The people today are much more aware of the importance of good communication they used to be. Despite the modern inventions of quick ways of transmitting human sound, written communication has its own importance. To compose effective message, we must apply certain communication principles.
·       Clarity
Clarity means communication the exact message on the first reading. Clarity makes the reader’s job easy. A clear message on the first reading makes the reader’s job easy. A clear message is easy to understand. Moreover, it saves time, money and effort. Aristotle said: “a good style is first of all, clear.” Short and easy words should be chose for bringing clarity:
Use                  instead of  
Start                commence
End                  terminate
Fire                  conflagration 
Daily                per diem
Clarity comes in a message through these ways:
1.      Use short, easy and familiar words.
2.      Keep pronoun references clear.
3.      Avoid needless jargon.
4.      Avoid chichés (old phrases).
5.      Avoid using words that have more than one meaning.
·       Conciseness
Conciseness is saying in the fewest possible words without sacrificing the other “C”
qualities.  A concise message save time, money and effort of both parties.
Shakespeare said: “brevity is the soul of wit.”
Southey said:  if you want to me sharp be brief.”
We should be like a bee that takes out nectar from each flower.
Use                  instead of
About               with regard to
If                      in the event that
Experience      past experience
Conciseness comes in a message through these ways:
1.      Include only relevant material.
2.      Make negative positive.
3.      Avoid needless repetition.
4.      Delete needless prefaces.
5.      Eliminate wordy expressions.
·       Completeness
Our communication is complete when it contains all information the reader needs. Completeness offers many benefits. Complete message bring the desired result without the expenses of added messages. They can also build goodwill.
            Communication comes in a message through these ways:
1.      Provide all necessary information.
2.      Answer all question asked.
3.      Give something extra, when desirable.
4.      Check five W’s: What, when, Where, Who, why.
·       Consideration
Consideration means preparing a message with the receiver in mind. Try to put yourself in his place. The sender is aware of the receiver’s desires, problems, circumstances, emotions, and reactions. This is also called “you-attitude.
Consideration comes in a message through these ways:
1.      Focus on “you” instead of “I” and “we”.
2.      Show benefit to the reader.
3.      Emphasize positive, pleasant facts.
·       Correctness
Correctness is the greatest quality of a message. Everything in the letter should be correct. If a letter has other “C” qualities, but it is not correct, it is useless. The appearance, information, grammar, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization should be correct.
Correctness comes in a message through these ways:
1.      Use the right level of language.
2.      Check the accuracy of facts, figures, and words.
·       Courtesy
Where courtesy reigns, everyone gains. Courtesy costs nothing but it brings much. Courtesy shows love and respect for the reader. Courtesy makes life pleasant. A letter written in a courteous way seems to be smiling. “please” and “thank you”  are courteous words. There must be sincerity behind courtesy.
Courtesy comes in a message through these ways:
1.      Be honestly tactful, thoughtful, and appreciative.
2.      Use expressions that show respect.
3.      Choose nonsexist language.
·       Concreteness
George M. Cohan said: “Don’t tell them-SHOW them!” Information writing shows as well as tells. Correctness means choosing words that shows definitely what you mean. Concrete and specific information is not only more informative, but also mire convincing. We have to make the reader “see” himself.
            Concreteness comes in a message through these ways:
1.      Choose vivid. Image-building words.
2.      Provide solid numbers and statistics.
3.      Put action in your verbs.
4.      Use words that appeal to five senses.
(Touch, smell, sight, hearing, taste)

COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS

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Communication is a process of exchange verbal and nonverbal message. Communication is a dynamic process. It is a chain of events that has eight steps our ideas cannot be communicated if any step is skipped. The components of communication are as follow:
1.        CONTENT
2.       SENDER
3.       ENCODER
4.       MESSAGE
5.       CHANNNEL
6.       RECEIVER
7.       FEED BACK
1.    CONTENT
Content is the background form where a message is initiated. There is a certain means behind a message. A message does not take place automatically. It has to be made happen the content effects the message in a strong way content may include temperament, relation, situation, etc. Sometime in oral communication noise become a hurdle.
2.    SENDER
Sender is the person who initiates the message. The sender may be a writer or speaker. The sender chooses time, language and tone of the message. The sender in influenced by many factors. It is very necessary that there is someone on the other end of communication. He encodes the message so he is also called encoder.
3.    ENCODEING
Encoding is a process in which ideas are put into the message. Then the message may take the form of a written word, a spoken word, gesture. The process is carried out by the sender. Therefore, the sender is also termed as encodes. Sometime, encoding may be difficult when the message is of complex nature.
4.    MESSAGE
Message is a focal point of the communication process. The message moves between persons as well as organization. It carries some news for the receivers. The message may be long or short, simple or complex, timed, organized, shaped and structured. Pre-writing or Pre-speaking give bright to a good message.
5.    CHANNEL
Channel is medium through which the sender conveys the message to the receiver. The channel may be written, oral, or gesture. The choice of channel is a great value. The channel should be chosen after keeping certain points in view. These points include cost, urgency, confidentiality, time of day, etc. the channel should facilitate the job of the receiver. Sometime, the success of message depends heavily upon the channel.
6.    RECEIVER
Receiver is the person to whom the message is send. The receiver may be a reader or listener. The receiver gets the message, understands, interprets and tries to grasp the true meaning of the message he is known as decoder. The receiver is of great value in the communication process, he should always be visualized.

7.    DECODING
Decoding is a process of understanding the message. After receiving the message, the receiver assigns meanings to symbols of the message. Then he is in a position to give its reply. Decoding sometime becomes difficult. It may be when the language is different or gesture is unclear. Decoding is purely in the hand of receiver. He should be knowledgeable, considerate and unbiased.
8.    FEEDBACK
Feedback is the final steps of communication process. It is response of the receiver of the message. Feedback determines the fate of message. Feedback may be positive or silence, urgent or delayed. Feedback is necessary because without it, we cannot know about the decision of the receiver. With the Feedback the cycle of communication.

LEVLES OF COMMUNICATION

An organization has three levels of communication.
  1.  Upward communication
  2. Downward communication
  3. Horizontal communication
 Upward communication
Upward communication travels from lower to higher ranks. Executives must learn what is going on in the organization. Since they cannot be everywhere at one time, They have to depend upon lower level employees for reports and suggestions. 
Downward communication
In most organization decisions are made at the top and than flow down to the people who will carry then out. Employees need clear job directions when they receive proper communication from the management, they can be more efficient.
Horizontal communication
Horizontal flows from one department to the other. It also occurs between the peoples of  same rank. It helps employees to co-ordinate tasks. It is especially useful for solving problems. Such co-ordinates  efforts lead to the success of the organization.