Primary & secondary education of a country


Education is the greatest force that can be used to bring about change. It is also the greatest investment that a nation can make for   the quick development of its economic, political, sociological and human resources .
Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, research, or simply through autodidacticism.[1] Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts.
Quotation: ISLAM GIVES GREAT IMPORTANCE TO EDUCATION.I Would like to add a very important quotation by our great PROPHET HAZRAT MUHAMMAD (S.A.W).
 Acquisition of knowledge is a religious obligation of each Muslim man and woman
There are two basic and important types of education which are necessary for the uplift of a countru these two types are primary education and secondary education.
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This is education given normally to children aged between six and eleven years and above. Since the rest of the educational system is built upon it, the primary level is the key to the success or failure of the whole system.
The state and local governments have the constitutional responsibility for primary education but private sector, represented by individuals, communities, religious groups, and voluntary agencies are permitted to own and run primary schools. Primary education is the FOUNDATION of the character building of  th children and these children are the future of a country
Elementary school was formerly the name given to publicly funded schools in Great Britain[citation needed] which provided a basic standard of education for working class children aged from five to 14, the school leaving age at the time. They were also known as industrial schools.
Elementary schools were set up to enable working class children to receive manual training and elementary instruction. They provided a restricted curriculum with the emphasis on reading, writing and arithmetic (the three Rs In Saudi Arabia, elementary school includes grade 1 through 6

Secondary education has increasingly become a central policy concern of developing countries, particularly among those that have made rapid progress in universalizing primary education and among those in which the demographic trend has shifted in favor of adolescents. The majority of countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, East Asia, and the Middle East, as well as some African countries, are grappling with the questions of how to provide skills and knowledge that enable adolescents to move to tertiary education and how to ensure a smooth transition to work for students whose education will end with secondary schooling.
Secondary education also addresses problems unique in human development. Without requisite education to guide their development, not only would young people be ill prepared for tertiary education or for the workplace, but they would also be susceptible to juvenile delinquency and teen pregnancy, thereby exacting a high social cost. Hence the challenge for secondary education is enormous. It represents an unfinished agenda that all countries will face as they develop.

Secondary Education in Europe and the United States

In Europe, higher education, including secondary education, began with training in religion and philosophy. Its purpose was to prepare leaders–especially religious leaders–and its curriculum reflected this purpose. As time passed, general topics for more applied professions were added as part of secondary and higher education curricula, and the curriculum was broadened accordingly. As these general topics were gradually added to the curriculum, they remained philosophical or theoretical in orientation. They were not studied as systems of empirical data, and proofs and validation of knowledge were theoretical rather than experimental.

Education and literacy rate in pak: Only 80% of Pakistani children finish primary school education.[12] The standard national system of education is mainly inspired from the British system.

Qualitative Dimension
In Pakistan, the quality of education has a declining trend. Shortage of teachers and poorly equipped laboratories has resulted in the out-dated curriculum that has little relevance to present day needs.[14]
Quantitative Dimension
Causative factors include defective curricula, dual medium of instruction, poor quality of teachers, cheating in the examinations and overcrowded classrooms. However, efforts are on the way of moulding the curriculum to meet its national requirements.[14


Organization and subject content. A single nationally set curriculum consistently delivered is a successful educational procedure at the primary level. Where flexibility and student choice are present there is widespread consensus that this should begin after primary school, although whether or not flexibility should begin in lower secondary, where it exists, is still debated. The decision as to whether a curriculum should prepare specialist or generalist knowledge and skills is often decided on the basis of whether a particular level is seen as preparatory or terminal. The trend appears to be one in which the mandated curriculum of the lower secondary grades, or their equivalent by whatever name, is a linear extrapolation of primary school.

Primary schools are almost always general-purpose institutions with considerable social and political consensus surrounding their mission, which is, simply put, to prepare all children for competent adulthood by giving them basic literacy and numeracy skills and, in many countries, an explicit set of moral values. The situation at the secondary level is vastly more complex. Nevertheless, a growing number of countries, often for political and economic reasons rather than pedagogical, put together in a single, all-purpose school, students from different backgrounds, with different needs, abilities, and interests

Conclusion:to conclude I would like to say tthat sound primary and secondary educations are necessary for the uplift of a country.and I recommend that every nation should make strong polices to increase their literacy rate because a countey’s power can be judged by its literarcy rate also.because we know education makes a country strong socially religiously  and economically.

Pollution Problems in Pakistan

Pollution is a major environmental problem in the most developing as well as developed countries. Most of these countries such as U.S have been quite successful in solving these problems by passing out certain environmental laws and producing alternatives to such sources which cause a lot of pollution such as coal and oil power stations. There are also laws which make sure that the waste from the industries is being disposed off correctly and is not in any way harmful to the environment. However in Pakistan the pollution problems have been rising since it got its independence. Very few people have concern about the negative effects of pollution on themselves as well as their environment. Hence this problem is increasing day by day which may lead in the destruction of our natural environment as well as our own. In Pakistan there are three major sources of pollution
1. Air Pollution: in Pakistan the most common source of air pollution is mainly vehicles whose exhaust fumes pollute the air. Unlike other developed countries where there are catalyc converters and efficient vehicles which may cause less pollution, the situation in Pakistan is totally opposite. As most of the people are poor they don’t have enough money to repair or spend money on their vehicles so that they can become environment friendly. Even the car manufacturers don’t make their cars much environment friendly and the people are forced to buy these cars. More fuel is burned as most roads of Pakistan are broken and there are a lot of traffic jams which increases the journey time. Many industries in big cities such as Karachi and Lahore give out harmful pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. The government and the authorities take little concern about these industries. As a result of this the sky of Lahore and Karachi are covered with thick smog .This may lead to many respiratory diseases and may also be harmful to the animals living in such places. Even in Islamabad, the cleanest city in Pakistan I could see thick smog over the city from the Margalla hills and while traveling to Murree there was so much of exhaust fumes from vehicles that we had to keep our car windows closed.
2. Water Pollution: this is a major problem in Pakistan. There are many sources of water pollution in Pakistan. Most of them are found in Karachi as it is an area of industries. Although it is a government policy to filter the industrial water and then release it into the sea many industries here are dumping contaminated water in seas thereby increasing the threat of
extinction of marine life as well as polluting the water. Almost the whole of city’s sewerage is dumped into rivers and the sea. As a result of this Karachi is facing many problems in the access of clean water and most parts of the city are still without water. Even in my home we get 2 small tankers weekly as there is no water in the supply. The oil spill incident has increased the amount of pollution in the sea as well as has caused most of the beaches to be polluted. It is said that the oil spill disaster from Tasman Spirit has killed hundreds and thousands of fishes as well as destroyed much of the marine life. It has also caused eye infections and respiratory problems to those living near the sea. Further leakages in pipelines have polluted the clean water which we have so little of.
3. Land Pollution: As Pakistan is not a rich country, it doesn’t have enough money to spend on waste disposal systems. As a result most of the home waste and other kinds of wastage is usually thrown away on empty plots next to the houses and is then burned which may be harmful to the people living in the area. Only less than 5% of the waste is recycled and most of it is disposed directly on the ground. There are only a few garbage cans along the roads so people living far away have to dispose off their waste somewhere else. This attracts flies which then spread diseases. Apart from this, the rubbish thrown would disintegrate in a 1000 years from now. Hence an increase in land pollution may in turn slowly destroy our natural environment which is already at risk.
SOLUTIONS TO THE POLLUTION PROBLEMS


Here are a few solutions to the pollution problems faced by Pakistan:
Air Pollution:
Instead of using private cars we must use public transport more often and walk for short distances.
There should be a greenbelt constructed in big cities such as Karachi. The trees in the green belt would reduce the amount of fumes in the air and give out clean oxygen.
We should use unleaded petrol in our vehicles. It is already available at most petrol stations. Unleaded petrol is more efficient for the car and is less harmful to the environment.
Most of the leading car manufacturers should install catalyc converters in their
2. Water pollution:
a)The factory waste should be first filtered and then disposed properly into sea or river. If this is not done, then the government should take legal action against them.
b)Instead of using clean water, we can use the filtered industrial water for flushing toilets, watering the plants and washing the cars.
c)The government should ask the local citizens for proper beach cleaning once in a year. Besides it should also fine those people who throw their waste into the sea or river.
d)There must be a regular cleaning of all the canals and channels by the government workers.
e) The government should pass strict environmental laws concerning oil spill
f)We must all cooperate with one another to save our marine life as much as possible.
3.Land Pollution:
a)Instead of throwing all our rubbish away we can give some of it for recycling such as old newspapers etc. we must also reuse polythene bags for other purposes such as for carrying things.
b) There must be a landfill area where all the rubbish can be disposed off. There must also be incinerators where the remaining garbage can be burned.
c)The government should place garbage cans and bins in many places so that people can throw their rubbish there.
d)We can play a part by throwing plastic wrappers and other kinds of waste into the garbage cans and not on the roads.
e) We can also help by keeping our environment around us clean as well as educating others to do so.
f) All the shop keepers must use paper bags instead of polythene ones. These are more environments friendly and can be recycled.
By Qasim Mahmood

IGI cheats

Hack: Civilian Brainwashing

Note this involves moving and renaming critical game files. Standy to uninstall the game and cleanse the directory or you’ll be in trouble.
Locate the ai folder in the …igi…commonai directory and duplicate it. Open the original ai folder and locate file civilian.qvm. List the file names of the other qvm files and move those files into another directory. If you backed up the original ai folder, you can delete them.
Copy the civilian.qvm file to replace each of the other non-civilian qvm files but with the file names previously listed. When you start a game with these modified behaviour files, the enemies in the game act and behave like civilians.



Invisibility

Note: Make backups before altering game files! Locate common/ai Folder on Project IGI Program Folder. Backup a copy of ai folder. In the original folder,delete all “qvm” files leaving “obsever.qvm” and “settings.qvm”. Copy “observer.qvm” and rename them as the original file names that you deleted before.
Example : Copy observer.qvm and paste.Then rename the copy obsever.qvm as “anya.qvm”.
Do it with other files too.


Cheat List

Enter these codes during game play after typing ”nada” at the main menu.

  • Easy Mode: easy
  • God Mode for Player and Team: allgod
  • Kill Enemies: ewww
  • Unlimited Ammo: allammo

Samsung Secret Codes

Samsung
SOFTWARE VERSION: *#9999#
IMEI NUMBER:*#06#
Serial number: *#0001#
Battery status- Memory capacity : *#9998*246#
Debug screen: *#9998*324# – *#8999*324#
LCD kontrast: *#9998*523#
Vibration test: *#9998*842# – *#8999*842#
Alarm beeper – Ringtone test : *#9998*289# – *#8999*289#
Smiley: *#9125#
Software version: *#0837#
Display contrast: *#0523# – *#8999*523#
Battery info: *#0228# or *#8999*228# 
Display storage capacity: *#8999*636#
Display SIM card information: *#8999*778#
Show date and alarm clock: *#8999*782#
The display during warning: *#8999*786#
Samsung hardware version: *#8999*837#
Show network information: *#8999*638#
Display received channel number and received intensity: *#8999*9266#

*#1111# S/W Version
*#1234# Firmware Version
*#2222# H/W Version
*#8999*8376263# All Versions Together
*#8999*8378# Test Menu
*#4777*8665# GPSR Tool
*#8999*523# LCD Brightness
*#8999*377# Error LOG Menu
*#8999*327# EEP Menu
*#8999*667# Debug Mode
*#92782# PhoneModel (Wap)
#*5737425# JAVA Mode
*#2255# Call List
*#232337# Bluetooth MAC Adress
*#5282837# Java Version

Type in *#0000# on a Samsung A300 to reset the language
Master reset(unlock) #*7337# (for the new samsungs E700 x600 but not E710)
Samsung E700 type *#2255# to show secret call log (not tested)
Samsung A300, A800 phone unlock enter this *2767*637#
Samsung V200, S100, S300 phone unlock : *2767*782257378#

BLACKBERRY SECRET CODES

To display your signal strength in decibels instead of bars: hold “alt” and press “N”, “M”, “L”, “L”(repeat to reverse the effect)
To check the data in your address book for inconsistency: in the address book hold “Alt” and press “V”, “A”, “L”, “D”
To re-built the data structure in the address book: In the address book hold “Alt” and press “R”, “B”, “L”, “D”
To display the source code of web page: In the browser hold “Alt” and press “R”, “B”, “V”, “S”
For technical information’s about device: hold “Alt” and (left) “shift” then press “H”
IMEI code: * # 06 #
Perform soft-reset of your device: press and hold “Alt” then press and hold (left) “shift’, then press and hold “del”
To display the event logs of all the system-level events that occurs on your device: hold “Alt” and press “L”, “G”, “L”, ” L”
(c)
Mobile secrets and tricks are the easy and short ways to perform the specific tasks and programs of the device. Here is some mobile phone tricks mentioned below:
NOKIA: (secrets for all model types)
Check the IMEI: * # 06 #
Check the software version: * # 8110 #
Sim clock stop: * # 746025625 #
Warranty menu: * # 92702689 #
Display the month and year of the manufacturer: 6232 (OK)
Displays the date of the last repairment: 7332 (OK)
Displays the date when the phone was purchased: 7832 (OK)
Displays the serial number: 9268 (OK)
Set the purchasing date: 37832 (OK)
Transfers all phone numbers, pictures, sounds from one phone to another: 87267 (OK)
To put your phone into silent mode temporarily, press the menu button then #
To turn ON the display light the quickly press and release the power button. They will stay on as long as button is kept press.
To delete SMS quickly, instead of pressing the option, erase to delete the message, just press C.
SAMSUNG:
Show IMEI number: * # 06 #
Show software version: * # 9999 #
Show serial parameter: * # 0001 #
Activate the smiley when charging: * # 9125 #
Battery status: * # 9998 * 228 #
Program status: * # 9998 * 246 #
Change alarm buzzer frequency: * # 9998 * 289 #
debug screens: * # 9998 * 324 #
Watchdog: * # 9998 * 364 #
Trace watchdog: * # 9998 * 427 #
Change LCD contrast: * # 9998 * 523 #
Jig detect: * # 9998 * 544 #
Memory status: * # 9998 * 636 #
SIM file size: * # 9998 * 746 #
SIM service table: * # 9998 * 778 #

SAGEM AND ALCATEL AND SONY ERICSON CODES

SAGEM;
IMEI number: * # 06 #
Service menu access: MENU 511 #


ALCATEL;
IMEI number: * # 06 #
Software version: * # 06 #
Net monitor: 000000*


Each mobile phone manufacturer company has made secret codes for their mobiles. In case of emergency like you have forgotten your code or to check some specifications like International Mobile Equipment Identity, software version, sim lock code and much more you can take the help of these special codes. Below are details of some mobile code tricks


SONY ERICSON
To check IMEI number press *# 06 #
To reset language back to English press * # 0000 #
To check the software version of your mobile press > *<<*<* service menu
To check sim lock press <**<

Secret codes for UFone

Ufone Call Diversion Codes

*#21# Allows you to check the number that “All Calls” are diverted to.

*#30# Lets you see the private number.

*#61# Allows you to check the number that “On No Reply” calls are diverted to.

*#62# Allows you to check the number that “Divert If Unreachable (no service)” calls are diverted to.

*#67# Allows you to check the number that “On Busy Calls” are diverted to.

##002# Unregistered all call diversions

*21# Activate unconditionally divert all calls

##21# Unregistered unconditionally divert all calls

#21# Deactivate unconditionally divert all calls

*#21# Check status of unconditionally divert all calls

**61*number# Divert on no answer to number and activate

*61#Activate divert on no answer

*67# Activate divert on busy

##67# De-register divert on busy

#67# Deactivate divert on busy

*#67# Check status of divert on busy

Ufone Voice Mail Code

##004# Deactivate Voice Mail

**004*190# Activate Voice Mail

Ufone Call Waiting Code

*43# Activate Call Waiting

#43# Deactivate Call Waiting

Ufone Balance Recharge Code

*123*(PIN)# Balance Recharge

Ufone Package Conversion Codes

*444*1# Ufone Prepay 2 Ufone Public Demand Conversion

*444*2# Ufone Public Demand 2 Ufone Prepay Conversion

Ufone Call Barring Codes

*#33# Check status of barr all outgoing calls

**330*code# Activate barr all calls

**351*code# Activate barr all incoming calls when roaming

#351*code# Deactivate barr all incoming calls when roaming

*#351# Check status of barr all incoming calls when roaming

**353*code# Activate barr all incoming calls

#330*code# Deactivate barr all calls

*#330*code# Check status of barr all calls

**333*code# Activate barr all outgoing calls

#333*code# Deactivate barr all outgoing calls

*#333# Check status of barr all outgoing calls

**35*code# Activate barr all incoming calls

#35*code# Deactivate barr all incoming calls

*#35# Check status of barr all incoming calls

#353*code# Deactivate barr all incoming calls

*#353# Check status of barr all incoming calls

NOKIA; Secret Codes

NOKIA;
IMEI number: * # 06 #
Software version: * # 0000 # lub * # 9999 #
Sim lock info: * # 92702689 #
Enhanced full rate: * 3370 # [# 3370 # off]
Half rate: * 4720 #
Provider lock status: # p w + 1234567890 + 1
Network lock status: # p w + 1234567890 + 2
Provider lock status: # p w + 1234567890 + 3
Sim card lock status: # p w + 1234567890 +4
1234567890-master code which is generated from IMEI

Nokia Secret Codes

Nokia Secret Codes

nokia
On the main screen type
*#06# for checking the IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity).
*#7780# reset to factory settings.
*#67705646# This will clear the LCD display(operator logo).
*#0000# To view software version.
*#2820# Bluetooth device address.
*#746025625# Sim clock allowed status. 
*#62209526# – Display the MAC address of the WLAN adapter. This is available only in the newer devices that supports WLAN like N80
#pw+1234567890+1# Shows if sim have restrictions.

*#92702689# – takes you to a secret menu where you may find some of the information below: 
1. Displays Serial Number. 
2. Displays the Month and Year of Manufacture 
3. Displays (if there) the date where the phone was purchased (MMYY) 
4. Displays the date of the last repair – if found (0000) 
5. Shows life timer of phone (time passes since last start)

*#3370# – Enhanced Full Rate Codec (EFR) activation. Increase signal strength, better signal reception. It also help if u want to use GPRS and the service is not responding or too slow. Phone battery will drain faster though.
*#3370* – (EFR) deactivation. Phone will automatically restart. Increase battery life by 30% because phone receives less signal from network.
*#4720# – Half Rate Codec activation.
*#4720* – Half Rate Codec deactivation. The phone will automatically restart 

If you forgot wallet code for Nokia S60 phone, use this code reset: *#7370925538#
Note, your data in the wallet will be erased. Phone will ask you the lock code. Default lock code is: 12345

Press *#3925538# to delete the contents and code of wallet. 

*#7328748263373738# resets security code.
Default security code is 12345

Unlock service provider: Insert sim, turn phone on and press vol up(arrow keys) for 3 seconds, should say pin code. Press C,then press * message should flash, press * again and 04*pin*pin*pin# 

Change closed caller group (settings >security settings>user groups) to 00000 and ure phone will sound the message tone when you are near a radar speed trap. Setting it to 500 will cause your phone 2 set off security alarms at shop exits, gr8 for practical jokes! (works with some of the Nokia phones.)

Press and hold “0” on the main screen to open wap browser.

Anti-Spyware and Anti-Virus Software